| Volume 1 Issue 1
||State Focus - Useful tools
that have been developed in specific states
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An electronic publication of the National Secondary Technical Transition
Assistance Center is being sent to hundreds of recipients,
representing parents, teachers, researchers, administrators, adult-service providers, and
adolescents participating in secondary transition services. Future
bi-monthly issues will feature secondary transition information from
across the country, offering readers an informative guide to the current
status of transition research and resources. Over the coming years NSTTAC is looking forward to meeting and hearing from readers in our
effort to improve the lives of youth with disabilities, as they prepare
for life beyond secondary school.
Readers can also visit the project website (www.nsttac.org)
for further information, including:
- Current information regarding secondary transition,
- Secondary transition resources for students, parents, and
- project activities.
October will be National Disability
Employment Awareness Month (NDEAM)
enacted Public Law 176 in 1945 establishing October as the month to
recognize the contributions Americans with disabilities are making in
*** See special note at the end of the newsletter ***
Sign up for the National Dropout Prevention Center
for Students with Disabilities newsletter (eNews) by contacting:
To view previous issues go to:
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|Knowledge Generation Update
David Test and the NSTTAC staff at UNC Charlotte are
developing training resources to accompany the Indicator 13
Checklist. Examples and non-examples of postsecondary goals, annual
goals, transition services, coordination of services, transition
assessment, and courses of study for several sample secondary students
will be available at www.nsttac.org
by September, 2006. NSTTAC’s technical assistance will be based
on evidence-based transition strategies, which are the focus of the
literature review that is currently being conducted. Staff have been
working with the NSTTAC Knowledge Generation Expert Panel to insure that
the findings will be most useful to administrators and practitioners.
Results will be organized in a manner that indicates (a) the area of
transition programming (e.g., student development, interagency
coordination) the research supports, as well as (b) the level of
evidence for the research, based on the
evolving Institute for Educational Sciences' (IES) framework. Final products from this
review should be available through the website by Winter, 2007. For
further information, contact
Capacity-Building Institute (CBI) Updates
This past year, Paula Kohler coordinated NSTTAC's role in
state-wide transition institues in Oklahoma and New Mexico. The
Institutes served over 750 professionals, representing numerous local
school and regional teams. Key participants included special educators,
Vocational Rehabilitation counselors, and other service providers. The
CBI in NM focused on improving employment and secondary education
outcomes and interagency collaboration, while the OK Institute focused
on student-centered planning and development. For further information,
In addition to the newsletter and various out-reach
activities, recent dissemination activities included presentations at
the Region 2 (New York, New Jersey, Puerto Rico and the US Virgin
Islands) Technical Assistance Conference, Pennsylvania State Transition
Conference, and New Hampshire's APEX II Project. For further information, contact Larry Kortering at
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Making the Connection: Indicators 1,2, 13 & 14 of the State
September 20th, 2006, Denver
forum, which is being held in conjunction with the National
Accountability Conference on Special Education and Early Intervention,
will make the connection for states regarding data collection and
programming for Indicators 1, 2, 13, and 14. The forum is presented by
the National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center in
partnership with the National Dropout Prevention Center for Students
with Disabilities, the National Post-School Outcomes Center, and the
U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Special Education Programs.
Conference: 18th Annual National
Dropout Prevention Network Conference, San Antonio, TX.
October 22-25, 2006
The 18th Annual National Dropout Prevention
Network Conference is designed to enhance the leadership skills of all
adults who are seeking to strengthen interventions among school,
community, and family, especially those in at-risk situations. Topics include high school improvement strategies, transition
programs, truancy prevention and reduction strategies, instructional
strategies for students with disabilities, service-learning, and
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In December 2005, states were requested to submit State
Performance Plans on 20 indicators for IDEA Part B services and 14
indicators for IDEA Part C services, to the Office of Special Education
Programs (OSEP). Beginning February, 2007 states will submit
the data collected on performance indicators in their Annual Performance Reports. NSTTAC's focus is on Indicator 13.
Indicator 13 is the
“percent of youth aged 16 and above with an IEP that includes
coordinated, measurable, annual IEP goals and transition services that
will reasonably enable the student to meet the post-secondary goals” (20
NSTTAC has developed a checklist to assist states
in collecting data on Indicator 13; a draft is available to view at
www.nsttac.org. NSTTAC is in discussion with OSEP staff to
obtain approval for the proposed Indicator 13 Checklist as a tool
states may use for data collection. There also will be an interactive web-based
version available to complete online or printed out; providing definitions and examples for each item.
State Performance Plan (SPPs) resources are available through the
Federal Resource Center network at
Other OSEP funded Technical Assistance and
Dissemination centers have analyzed State Performance Plans on other
Part B Indicators:
- Indicator 3: National Center on Educational Outcomes
- Indicator 4: Center on Positive Behavior
Intervention and Supports
- Indicator 5: National Institute for Urban School
- Indicators 6 and 12: National Early Childhood
Technical Assistance Center
- Indicators 7 and 8: Early Childhood Outcomes Center
- Indicators 9 and 10: National Center for Culturally
Responsive Education Systems
- Indicators 11 and 15: National Center for Special
Education Accountability Monitoring
- Indicators 16 through 19: Consortium for Appropriate
Dispute Resolution in Education
Most closely related to secondary transition, the
National Dropout Prevention Center for Students with Disabilities
www.dropoutprevention.org is assisting states in addressing
Indicators 1 and 2 (graduation and dropout rates, respectively). The National Post-School Outcomes Center
www.psocenter.org has developed a sampling calculator and resources
to assist states with Indicator 14, regarding data
collection on post-school employment and education. These two centers
and NSTTAC will host a forum on September 20, 2020 that will help
States in “Making the Connection” among Indicators 1, 2, 13, and 14.
Information about the forum is available at
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IDEA (2004) Regulations Related to Secondary Transition;
on August 14, 2006, the U.S. Department of Education released the official
regulations for Part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education
Improvement Act (IDEA, 2004).
Teachers Pay Teachers
is the world's first marketplace, launched in April 2006,
where smart educators can buy and sell original course materials. The
time has finally arrived for the power of the internet to meet the power
of our best educational minds.
Technical Assistance on Transition and the Rehabilitation Act (TATRA) and other Parent Information and Training projects, funded by the
Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA) help families learn how
to better prepare youth with disabilities for independent living,
access adult service systems, and obtain productive employment. The website is a great resource
for someone wanting information.
Parent Educational Advocacy Training
Center (PEATC) is
Virginia’s parent education, support, training, and information center is
committed to helping children with disabilities, their families and the
professionals who serve them. A useful website, providing a
wealth of information and resources in an easy to understand manner. PEATC
has produced 'Next Steps,' a guide to planning the transitional steps to
adult life for students with disabilities.
Families and Advocates Partnership for Education (FAPE)
is helping parents and advocates improve educational results for
students with disabilities. Offering a large range of current
research practices and new resources that have been made
available at this website --
IMPACT - Parenting Teens and Young
Adults with Disabilities is published by the Institute on Community Integration, and the
Research and Training Center on Community Living, College of Education
and Human Development, University of Minnesota.
With a long list of
articles, all useful in the education of teens and young adults with
disabilities, this resource offers a wide range of tools.
Career Counselor’s Toolkit for counselors who are
advising students with disabilities on their post-secondary options. the
Toolkit is produced by the Heath Project – George Washington University.
The Toolkit has an easy to use guide
answers questions and offers advice as to who you should contact to answer a particular question.
National Truancy Program Registry is supported by the National Center for School Engagement. This site
offers a chance for truancy programs to interact and provides a resource
for locating local truancy programs. The resource does not offer
advice about truancy, but rather provides numerous resources
that offer information.
Gates to Adventure
is a free online transition curriculum created by the Postsecondary Education Programs Network (PEPNet)
through a grant from the U.S. Department of
Education. Gates to Adventure is designed for students who are deaf or hard of
hearing, ages 14 through 21, but can be used with any students. The instructional goal of the
training is to enhance students' understanding of skills needed for
successful transition from secondary to postsecondary education.
Comprehensive Programs for Students with Learning Disabilities
provides a list of specific universities. By clicking on
the names of the colleges and universities, you will be taken to the
pages of their websites which detail their learning disabilities
programs and, in most cases, list the names of and contact information
for staff able to answer your questions.
The Job Accommodation Network (JAN)
is a free consulting service
designed to increase the employability of people with disabilities. It
provides individualized solutions for worksite accommodations, technical
assistance regarding the ADA, and other disability-related legislation.
Your Employment Selections (YES!)
is a motion-video, internet-based job preference program for
youth and adults with disabilities. This program allows youth and adult
participants with limited or no reading skills to watch videos of jobs,
listen as a narrator describes key tasks in each job, and select
preferred ones. The program shows motion video for 120 different jobs.
the program is produced by the Technology, Research, and Innovation in
Special Education (TRISPED) Project at Utah State University.
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National Gardening Association, Home
Depot Offering Grants For Young Garden Projects
Organizations wanting to engage children with disabilities in garden
projects in 2007 may apply for Youth Garden Grants through the National
Gardening Assn. and Home Depot. Treatment facilities, camps, schools,
community centers, clubs, youth groups and intergenerational groups
throughout the nation are eligible to apply as long as groups include at
least 15 children between the ages of 3 - 18. Applicants need to
demonstrate a child-centered plan that emphasizes children and youth
working in an outdoor garden. Winning programs receive educational
materials from NGA and a Home Depot gift card. For more
information go to
Governors Urge Students To Apply For $790 Million In New Grants
Qualified Pell Grant-eligible students are able
to apply for new grants worth between $750 and $4,000. The new
Academic Competitiveness (AC)
grants and the National Science and Mathematics Access to Retain
Talent (SMART) grants provide $790 million in funding for this fall and
$4.5 billion over the next five years.
The Department of Education estimates
approximately 500,000 students will qualify to receive these grants.
Students can receive more eligibility and application information for these grant programs online at
http://www.federalstudentaid.ed.gov or by calling 1- 800- 4FEDAID (or
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websites can be linked to from
the NSTTAC website www.nsttac.org:
College Planning for Students with Disabilities
Parent-Child Connectedness Research
Consortium On Leadership and Disability for Youth Web Site
Postsecondary Education Programs Network
Division on Career
Development and Transition
Resource Center (FRC)
Regional Resource Centers for Special Education (RRCs)
Northeast Regional Resource Center (NERRC)
Mid-South Regional Resource Center (MSRRC)
Southeast Regional Resource Center (SERRC)
North Central Regional Resource Center (NCRRC)
Mountain Plains Regional Resource Center (MPRRC)
Western Regional Resource Center (WRRC)
National Association of State
Directors of Special Education, Inc.
Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO)
National Center on
Secondary Education and Transition (NCSET)
Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY)
Dropout Prevention Center for Students with Disabilities (NDPC-SD)
High School Center
Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2)
Post-School Outcomes Center (NPSO)
Transition Network (NTN)
Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP)
Technical Assistance Center Project (SDTAC)
Technical Assistance Alliance for Parent Centers
The University of Arkansas at Little Rock
offers a Guide to Making the Transition from High School to College for
students and faculty. Representing one of the many resources available
from the Disability Support Services at the University of Arkansas; the
transition guide breaks down the steps sequentially for students to plan
an effective transition from high school to college. The webpage is
broken down into a clear and concise layout that is easy to comprehend.
The Ontario High School Transition
Program provides information for parents on how to help their child
prepare for transition. The webpage has useful links at the top allowing parents the
ease of going directly to the information that they require. The main
headings are understanding transition, planning for transition,
transition meeting outline, transition services flow chart, local agency
information, college bound checklist, and armed forces links.
Gretchen Everhart School, Tallahassee, Florida
has produced a guide for parents and families to prepare students with disabilities
to enter post-secondary environments. As well as the transition guide
there is access to a transition services section that has a wealth of information. The table of contents
breaks the process down into clear steps which directly link to each
Parents' Guide to
Transition: What Happens After
The Montana Systems Change for
Transition Services for Youth with Disabilities Project produced this
Guide. This site provides information about school and
community-based transition-related resources.
The National Center on Secondary Education and
a website that is
resource tool with a variety of sources for information about different
aspects of transition. It offers a broad overview of secondary
An overview of transition services by Rockingham
County Public Schools
allows the visitor to work
through the process
of developing a transition plan. This site breaks down what each step
means and provides parents with possible ideas to help their child.
Village, a global community of disability-related resources, is produced
by the Waisman Center at the University of Wisconsin- Madison.
This website provides a long list of websites related to secondary transition.
The sites are
separated into different areas including transition
information, general career, interest inventories, independent living,
employment, health, civil rights and legal information, post-secondary
education, transportation, programs and benefits, and supports for youth
and young adults.
Access Transition, by the Alliance for Technology Access,
provides students with a variety
of tools and information to help them understand transition. There is a
very good section looking at the role of technology in secondary transition and
at student’s ability to use technology. In some
sections there are links to more detailed information to help you
understand a topic, should you require it. There is no content list at
the start of the page therefore to find specific information requires
students to search through the information, although each section is
Designing Individualized Education Program (IEP) Transition Plans provides a
brief overview of what to think about when producing a transition plan.
For each piece
of information it shows how it relates to the requirements of the law.
Transition to College:
Strategic Planning to Ensure Success for Students With Learning
Parent Advocacy Brief
that explains what ‘IDEA’ means by transition and how
it should be implemented. A checklist is provided along with a long list
of resources available to parents.
College with a Student with a Disability?
You may wish to visit
guide that is
a supplement to Education Quest
Foundation’s College Prep Handbook. Created by Project NETS at the
University of Nebraska – Lincoln. The publication is for students with
disabilities planning to attend postsecondary education institution and
their parent or guardians. In 6 short steps it guides you through
process of transitioning from high school and helping you explore you
options and the choices you need to make.
offers a series of interactive activities for students who are preparing
for the transition from school to post-secondary schooling or
Heather is a 20-year-old student with cognitive disabilities who
will be graduated from public school in June 2007. Heather and her
family had planned for her to work in the community after graduation,
and she prepared for this goal by working at a variety of community-based instruction vocational sites through her school transition
program. She has been successful in attaining paid employment during the
school day at a day care where she delivers meals to each classroom with
the support of a job coach. Family participation, interagency
collaboration, and student focused planning were essential to her
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If you know of a student with a disability who is
making strides in transitioning from school to adult life, share their story with NSTTAC!
E-mail the story as an attachment to Larry Kortering at:
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|New York State, TransQual Online –
This online tool allows teachers to ensure that they have met all the
criteria for meeting the transition needs of a student. For every area
there is a link providing further information if you are unclear about
the process. The site also provides a number of resources that can offer
advice or tools that will help in the transition process.
New York State school districts and Boards of
Cooperative Education Services (BOCES) use this tool to
help improve the academic achievement and adult outcome
of their students with disabilities. http://www.transqual.org
The Vocational and Educational
Services for Individuals with Disabilities (VESID), New York State
This website is a large resource that offers something for
everyone. It is a good starting
point from which you access information.
Pennsylvania has a Successful Transition
The Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network offers
ongoing training opportunities to help parents and educators maximize
the achievement of all students, including students with disabilities.
This past July they held a statewide transition conference for about
700 service providers, including parents, teachers, and adult-service
providers. For further information and future activities, you can visit
their website at
The Virginia Department of Education offers links to the best practices of secondary transition
from across the USA. There are links to information and resources from
over 17 states. The link to Virginia’s own transition resources offers
extensive information about what services are available within the
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Programs for 18 - 21 Year Olds
Within the last decade, more attention has been given in the literature
to the development of 18-21 programs for students with significant disabilities.
18-21 programs are alternative special education programs developed by the
public school system housed on college campuses and other community setting
locations. These programs give students with significant disabilities the
opportunity to learn functional skills and participate in age-appropriate
activities in the community. Students that participate in these programs receive
an alternative diploma (e.g., certificate of attendance from the high school
upon program completion). The programs have numerous benefits including students
having the opportunity to gain independent living skills in real-life settings.
Currently, there are 113 18-21 programs in the country as recognized by the
Transition Coalition. Although the special education field has increased the
number of programs within the past 10 years, researchers have provided a wealth
of suggestions for starting a program and providing services to students with
significant disabilities in the post-secondary setting (Grigal, Neubert, & Moon,
Grigal. M., Neubert, D. A., & Moon, M. S. (2002).
Postsecondary options for students with significant disabilities. Teaching
Exceptional Children, 35,
For more information on 18-21 programs nationwide and
resources for serving students with significant disabilities in the
post-secondary setting visit the Transition Coalition at:
On-campus outreach: Supporting secondary transition best practices in
post-secondary settings for students with significant disabilities-
NLTS2: Information related to Behavior of
and Discipline Procedures
NLTS2 released a new data report in March 2006 regarding discipline
procedures and behavior of students with disabilities in grades 7 through 12 who
attend our nation’s schools. The information was collected through surveys of
the students’ teachers and parents. Overall, students with disabilities exhibit
appropriate behaviors. However, among students with disabilities, nearly 20 % of
students tend to “argue”, “fight”, and do not “control behavior appropriately”.
Student referral to an administrator, detention, expulsion, and
suspension are typical disciplinary actions that schools implement in reaction
to behavioral problems. Among students with disabilities, 34% received
disciplinary action in the past school year. One third of students with
disabilities in secondary programs are expelled or suspended during school
years; as compared to one-fifth of their non-disabled peers.
Impact of Disability Type and Demographics
Students with emotional/behavior disorders are more likely to exhibit
behavior problems and receive disciplinary actions. Teachers reported that males
with disabilities in secondary school are twice as likely to receive some sort
of disciplinary action in comparison to females. Furthermore, teachers report
that African American students are more likely to exhibit behavior problems, and
are more likely to be suspended or expelled in comparison to Caucasian and
Hispanic students. Finally, students in middle school display
inappropriate behaviors in comparison to their peers, yet rates of disciplinary
actions do not differ between the two age groups.
Access the full report at:
Disability History- An Important Part of Our Heritage
On July 26, 2006, Americans celebrated the 16th anniversary of the
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Since the ADA was signed by President
George H. W. Bush in 1990, many changes have been made, creating a more
accessible environment for America’s approximately 51.2 million people with
disabilities (U.S. Census, 2006).
Most Americans, however, are unfamiliar with the events which led to the signing
of the ADA. Buoyed by the civil rights and antiwar movements of the 1960s,
and the feminist movement of the 1970s, disability leaders held sit-ins in
federal buildings, blocked inaccessible buses from moving, drafted legislation,
and protested in the streets. Like the broader civil rights movements which
preceded it, the disability civil rights movement had its own heroes and
champions, for example, Ed Roberts, Gini Laurie (grandmother of the independent
living movement), and Justin Dart (father of the Americans with Disabilities
Act) to name just a few.
Teaching children and youth through national identification of specific months
to honor the history and contributions of women and those of African American,
Hispanic American, American Indian/Alaska Native, or Asian/Pacific American
backgrounds has been recognized as an important part of our nation’s heritage.
Disability history, however, has been largely ignored in curricula at the
elementary, middle school, and high school levels. This is particularly
noteworthy when one considers the fact that people with disabilities represent
the one population subgroup that anyone can join at any time.
The tide is beginning to turn, however, due in large part to grassroots
efforts of young disability leaders. The youth-led movement for equal
education on disability history celebrated its first victory in West
Virginia in April 2006 with the passage of
HB4491, establishing the third week in October as “Disability
History Week” in that state. This landmark legislation will: require
instruction in public schools on disability history, people with
disabilities, and the disability rights movement; encourage colleges and
universities to conduct and promote activities that provide education,
awareness and understanding of disability history; encourage the
legislature to provide recognition through an annual, joint
proclamation; and provide resources for instruction and activities.
West Virginia is not the only state taking such action. In
Florida, a group of youth took their grassroots efforts to the next
level by meeting with Governor Jeb Bush. The Florida Governor agreed to
support their efforts by issuing an executive order supporting teaching
during two separate “Disability History and Awareness Weeks.” The
youth leaders from West Virginia and Florida are also working with youth
leaders from other states interested in introducing similar bills.
Learning about the history, values, and beliefs of one’s society has
been recognized as one of 12 key components to effective youth
leadership development (Woyach and Cox (1997)). If you are an educator
or other youth worker interested in increasing awareness and
understanding of the history and contributions made by people with
disabilities there are a number of resources available to assist you
including the following:
ADL Curriculum Connections: Anti-Bias Lesson Plan and Resources for K–12
http://www.adl.org/education/curriculum_connections/fall_2005/ This site
provides suggestions for the curriculum that could be used for teaching
about disability history.
Center on Human Policies: Disability Studies for Teachers
http://www.disabilitystudiesforteachers.org This site was created
for teachers to use as a reference tool when they are teaching grades
6-12 about disability history. It contains lesson plans, activities,
and materials that the teacher may use when teaching Disability History.
Disability History Museum
http://www.disabilitymuseum.org/ This site is intended to promote
understanding about the historical experience of people with
disabilities by recovering, chronicling, and interpreting their stories.
Contents include a library in two parts: a document collection and a
visual still collection.
Disability Social History Project
http://www.disabilityhistory.org/index.html The Disability History
Project is a community history project which provides information about
heroes in the disability movement, a disability history timeline, and
EDGE - Education for Disability & Gender Equity
http://www.disabilityhistory.org/dwa/edge/curriculum/ A high school
curriculum incorporating disability and gender issues into humanities
http://www.familyvillage.wisc.edu/general/history.html This resource
connects you to a number of other resources on disability history.
Florida Youth Council:
http://www.ncld-youth.info/fyc.htm This site, which details the
grassroots efforts to celebrate Disability History and Awareness Weeks
in Florida, also provides general information about disability history.
Minnesota Governor’s Council on Developmental Disabilities:
http://www.mncdd.org/parallels/menu.html This site provides a wealth
of information on disability history.
Mountain State Centers for Independent Living:
http://www.mtstcil.org/advocacy/2006youth-sb472.html A site
dedicated to the group of youth who brought the “Establishing Disability
History” Law to West Virginia.
National Public Radio’s: Beyond Affliction the Disability History
This project offers an in depth look into disability history and the
civil rights movement for individuals with disabilities.
Parent Advocacy Coalition for Educational Rights (PACER Center):
http://www.pacer.org/C3/curriculum/Session2/index.htm This page
provides both resources and curriculums for teaching Disability History
Resource Center for Independent Living:
site provides a timeline of the disability civil rights movement.
Santa Monica College:
http://www.smc.edu/disabledstudent/Guide/34philos.htm This web page
offers insight into the philosophy behind disability rights.
Smithsonian Museum of American History:
site offers a virtual tour of the Disability Rights Movement Exhibit at
the Smithsonian American History Museum.
This site contains middle school level activities that can be done in
the classroom relating to disability history.
West Virginia Legislation
This is the West Virginia bill referenced in the body of the text of
"Nine tenths of education is encouragement." – Anatole France
objective of education is to prepare the young to educate
themselves throughout their lives." - Robert Maynard Hutchins
Thanks to Reference Points: Transition Updates from the TATRA project
for providing some of the information including in this issue of NSTTAC
Reference Points is administered by PACER Center
www.pacer.org as a joint technical
assistance activity of the TATRA Project and the National Center on
Secondary Education and Transition
www.ncset.org. The National Center on Secondary Education and
Transition is funded by and is a partner with the U.S. Department of
Education, Office of Special Education Programs, cooperative agreement #
H326J000005. The TATRA Project is funded by the Rehabilitation Services
||You are welcome to copy and
paste portions of this Notes issue into your own e-mail newsletter;
however, please credit the National Secondary Transition Technical
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“Excerpted from NSTTAC Notes, an electronic
newsletter of the National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance
Center (NSTTAC), available online at
NSTTAC is funded by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special
Contributing to Notes:
||If you have comments, questions
of ideas relating to Notes please e-mail:
||If you have not already
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Department of Special Education & Child Development
9201 University City Boulevard
Charlotte, NC 28223
||The National Secondary
Transition Technical Assistance Center disseminates Notes to enhance
public access to information about secondary education and transition
activities. Our intention is to provide resources that are current and
accurate. Although every attempt is made to ensure the accuracy of this
information, we can make no guarantees. We will, of course, make every
effort to correct errors brought to our attention. Notes was supported
in whole or in part by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of
Special Education Programs, (Cooperative Agreement No. H326J050004).
However, the opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the
policy or position of the U. S. Department of Education, Office of
Special Education Programs, and no official endorsement should be
inferred. Note: There are no copyright restrictions on this document.
However, please credit the source and support of federal funds when
copying all or part of this material.
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