Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Youth and Transition Planning

Cultural Diversity and Secondary Transition Annotated Bibliography

Prepared for NSTTAC by Shaqwana M. Freeman-Green


Overview of Issue

According to the National Longitudinal Transition Studies (NLTS-1 & NLTS-2) youth with disabilities lag behind their peers without disabilities in terms of indicators of a quality adult life (e.g., employment, postsecondary school attendance, independent living; Blackorby & Wagner, 1996; NLTS-2, 2005). This is especially true of youth with disabilities who are culturally and linguistically diverse. The terms cultural diversity and cultural and linguistic diversity are often used synonymously. Cultural and linguistic diversity (CLD) primarily refers to interactions and comparisons between people within a given environment, rather than a trait or characteristic that resides within a given individual (Barrera & Corso, 2003). Students who typically fall into this category include: African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, students who speak English as a second language, and students who have undocumented or immigrant status (Trainor, Lindstrom, Simon-Burroughs, Martin, & McCray Sorrels, 2008).

The purpose of this annotated bibliography is to provide practitioners with relevant research and resources regarding issues and strategies in transition planning with CLD students.  The references are organized in the categories of “Issues in Transition Planning for CLD Youth” and “Strategies for Transition Planning for CLD Youth.” Finally, a table of resources is provided as a quick reference tool.  



Barrera, I., & Corso, R. M. (with Macpherson, D.). (2003). Skilled dialogue: Strategies for responding to cultural diversity in early childhood. Baltimore: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Co.

Blackorby, J., & Wagner, M. (1996). Longitudinal postschool outcomes of youth with disabilities: Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study. Exceptional Children, 62, 399-413.

National Longitudinal Transition Study-2. (2005). Changes over time in postschool outcomes of youth with disabilities. Retrieved from

Trainor, A. A., Lindstrom, L., Simon-Burroughs, M., Martin, J. E., & McCray Sorrels, A. (2008). From marginalized to maximized opportunities for diverse youth with disabilities. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 31, 56-64.


Annotated Bibliography


Issues in Transition Planning  for CLD Youth

Cartledge, G. Y., Gardner, R., & Ford, D. Y. (2008). Culturally responsive community-based interventions. Diverse learners with exceptionalities: Culturally responsive teaching in the inclusive classroom (pp. 188-207). Upper River Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

This chapter focuses on meeting the needs of CLD exceptional learners in a setting other than the structured school day. Two challenges that CLD exceptional learners are faced with are not accessing community resources that are available to them and actively participating in a variety of environments including the community. According to the authors, community-based activities afford CLD exceptional learners with an opportunity to increase their intellectual and social skills, develop friendships, expand their life experiences, and pursue activities of interest. Some examples of community programs might include (a) the library or museums, (b) after-school programs, (c) recreation programs, (d) sport programs, (e) vocations (job and career awareness), and (f) religious institutions.


Cartledge, G. Y., Gardner, R., & Ford, D. Y. (2008). Effective post secondary transitions for culturally and linguistically diverse learners with exceptionalities. Diverse learners with exceptionalities: Culturally responsive teaching in the inclusive classroom (pp. 304-327). Upper River Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

This chapter provides information about transition needs and instructional strategies for culturally and linguistically diverse learners with exceptionalities. According to the authors, students with disabilities have had limited transition success with (a) vocational experiences, (b) career experiences, (c) education experiences, (d) higher education experiences, (e) independent living experiences, (f) and financial experiences. CLD exceptional students have special needs related to support systems and community resources, and person centered planning may be an effective way to accommodate their cultural differences. Additionally, paid and applied vocational experiences may provide meaningful experiences that may motivate them to complete school.


Goff, C., Martin, J. E., & Thomas, M. K. (2007). The burden of acting White: Implications for transitions. Career Development and Exceptional Individuals, 30(3), 134-146.

This article describes a study in which Black students were engaged in discussions about the burden of acting white and how this may have impacted their in-school and post-school outcomes and transition visions. It was suggested that Black students needed increased self-determination skills based on the body of research that suggests a strong relationship between self-determination, academic performance, and post-school transition outcomes. Additionally, when the Black students in the study had clearly identified post-school visions they were better able to overcome the burden of acting White. These students were able to use visions of who they saw themselves being in the future and use that to set and attain their goals. 


Greene, G., & Kochhar-Bryant, C. A. (2009). Transition of culturally and linguistically diverse youth with disabilities. In C. A. Kochhar-Bryant, & G. A. Greene (Eds.), Pathways to Successful Transition for Youth with Disabilities: A Developmental Process (pp. 426-459). Columbus, Ohio: Pearson.

This book chapter describes the current status of CLD youth with disabilities in the American education system. Highlights include:

  • Transition outcomes of CLD youth with disabilities are compared with non-CLD peers using NLTS-1 (1996) and NLTS-2 (2002) data.
  • The barriers that impede successful transition for CLD youth with disabilities and their families during transition years are described including (a) professional insensitivity in transition personnel, (b) school-imposed barriers to transition, and (c) characteristics of particular CLD groups.
  • Authors suggest best practices and how the quality of transition services provided to CLD youth and their families should be evaluated.



Kochhar-Bryant, C. A. (2009). Student populations and their transition needs. In C. A. Kochhar-Bryant, & G. A. Greene (Eds.), Pathways to Successful Transition for Youth with Disabilities: A Developmental Process (pp. 28-65). Columbus, Ohio: Pearson.

This chapter discusses diversity and variations among different cultures, ethnic backgrounds, disabilities, and gender differences. The author explored transition planning choices and challenges for different populations including students with disabilities who are gifted and talented, students at-risk for failure in general education setting, returning school dropouts, students with limited English proficiency, teen parents, and many others.  Needs of families in interaction with their children along the developmental path of transition to adulthood was also explored.


Leake, D. W., & Black, R. S. (2005). Implications of individualism and collectivism for the transition of youth with severe disabilities. TASH Connections, 12-16.

This article discusses difference between communication problems in context of service systems and collectivistic orientation characteristics of world cultures, and explores implications for three transition-related topics: self-determination, independent living, and person-center planning. The authors provide specific questions that help determine where family’s values and goals fall along individualistic-collectivistic continuum.


Leake, D. W., Black, R. S., & Roberts, K. (2003/2004). Assumptions in transition planning: Are they culturally sensitive? Impact: Feature Issue on Achieving Secondary Education and Transition Results for Students with Disabilities, 16(3). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, NCSET, Institute on Community Integration. Retrieved from

This articlefocuses on assumptions in transition planning to determine if those assumptions (i.e., individual-oriented outcomes such as self-determination, self-reliance, and independent living) are culturally sensitive. Authors suggested that because transition systems are typically rooted in individualistic cultural assumptions, they often fall short in accommodating collectivistic values and behaviors. It was suggested that individuals working with CLD youth with disabilities need to be aware of contrasts between individualism and collectivism and of cultural basis of their own values and practice. Examples of individualistic values that may commonly underlie transition policies and practices, as well as possible alternative CLD values that may be encountered included:

  • Individual competitiveness and personal achievement (individualistic); group competitiveness and group achievement (CLD)
  • Self-determination and individual choice (individualistic); group or hierarchical decision-making (CLD).
  • Postsecondary education (individualistic); contributing to family through wages, housework, etc. (CLD).
  • Independent living and self-reliance (individualistic); residing with kin, interdependence, and possibly being cared for (CLD).
  • Creating a transition plan on paper (individualistic); establishing a close personal relationship between professionals, youth, and family (CLD).


Leake, D., & Cholymay, M. (2003). Addressing the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse students with disabilities in postsecondary education. Information Brief: Addressing Trends and Developments in Secondary Education and Transition. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, NCSET, Institute on Community Integration.

This brief reports that CLD students with disabilities face multiple barriers to obtaining postsecondary degrees. Authors indicated postsecondary faculty and staff can have a significant influence on the success of these students by gaining awareness of supports they need, such as social inclusion, natural supports, self-advocacy, cultural competency, role models, and mentors.


Lindstrom, L., & Benz, M. R. (2002). Phases of career development: Case studies of young women with learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 69, 67-83.

This study examines factors that influence the career development process for young women with learning disabilities entering the workforce. A case study analysis revealed young women with learning disabilities needed (a) a variety of experiences and vocational activities in order to make informed choices about possible occupational options, (b) counseling and guidance through positive relationships with adults to support career development, and (c) motivation and personal drive that leads to self-directed career decision-making which focuses on their strengths and abilities.


Lindstrom, L., Benz, M. R., & Doren, B. (2004). Expanding career options for young women with disabilities. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 27, 43-63. doi:10.1177088572880402700104

This study investigates the barriers young women with learning disabilities face that limited their career options. A case study analysis revealed (a) gender roles, (b) disability limitations, (c) family and childhood experiences, (d) early work experiences, and (e) career exploration and counseling all appeared to influence initial career choices and post-school employment outcomes the young women. The two major factors that seemed to expand career options for young women with learning disabilities were laying the foundation with positive work-related experiences and early introduction to the demands of the workforce, and expanding and refining goals by working with school and vocational rehabilitation staff through structured transition activities and ongoing counseling to determine specific occupational interests.


Rueda, R., Monzo, L., Shapiro, J., Gomez, J., & Blacher, J. (2005). Cultural models of transition: Latina mothers of young adults with developmental disabilities. Exceptional Children, 71(4), 401-414.

This study explores Latino mothers’ views on transition and transition-related issues. Focus group sessions revealed basic skills and social adaptation were of more importance to the mothers than work placements or employment. Regardless of whether or not the youth had a disability, it was not an expectation the young adult move out of the family house once they reached adulthood. The mothers’ of the Latino youth felt they knew what was best for their children more than the professionals, making collaborative decision making between the adults a necessity. While access to information has been seen as a way to increase services for the youth, mothers’ were not always receptive of this information. Additionally, community involvement aspects of transition represented negative and dangerous experiences from the mothers’ perspective because of perceived insufficient supervision and possible discrimination against persons with disabilities.


Trainor, A. (2002). Self-determination for students with learning disabilities: Is it a universal value? Qualitative Studies in Education, 15, 711-725.

The author reviews literature on self-determination during postsecondary transition for students with LD and the influence of cultural values on this process. From this review it was revealed that gaps of knowledge existed regarding postsecondary transition service provision for CLD students and families. Concept definitions, characteristics, and example components of model programs are provided. The author concluded research is needed that examines the dominant culture values embedded in education philosophies including (a) autonomy and independence, (b) equity, and (c) normalization.


Trainor, A. A. (2010). Adolescents with disabilities transitioning to adulthood: Implications for a diverse and multicultural population. The Prevention Researcher, 17, 12-16.

The purpose of this article was to consider the state of transition education and planning for youth with disabilities, paying particular attention to majority/minority issues and trends. The Author summarized challenges for youth with disabilities transitioning into adulthood:

  • Opportunities for adolescents to practice self-determination in school contexts are often missing or lack cultural responsiveness, compromising potential usefulness of these opportunities
  • Few transition plans addressed families’ and students’ strong preference to continue living at home after high school
  • Lack of connection to participants’ churches and cultural organizations within communities limited the extent to which transition plans included or reflected established mentor support and important adult connections


The author also suggested implications for practice including:

  • Pay attention to the range of experiences that constitute adolescents’ domains of transition
  • As teachers focus on increasing students’ self-determination, other postsecondary indicators might improve
  • Advocate for students with diverse needs so that they have equitable access to education, disability services, and preparatory experiences.


Trainor, A. A. (2010). Diverse approaches to parent advocacy during special education home-school interactions: Identification and use of cultural and social capital. Remedial and Special Education, 31, 34-47. doi: 10.1177/0741932508324401

This study explores types of capital resources parents perceived necessary to their participation in special education processes via five focus groups of participants from a range of socioeconomic, disability, and racial or ethnic backgrounds through 27 in-depth interviews. Results indicated race and ethnicity, socioeconomic background, and disability impacted the experiences with and responses to special education parent participation and advocacy. Parents of color were less likely to use advocacy approaches. Parents of youth with autism displayed stronger advocacy approaches that included instances of disability expertise and strategy while other disability categories exhibited a wider range of approaches to advocacy. Results also indicated advocacy on behalf of one student also required different capital resources than did advocacy for systems change. 


Trainor, A. A. (2005). Self-determination perceptions and behaviors of diverse students with LD during the transition planning process. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38, 233-249.

This article examines self-determination perceptions and behaviors of European American, African American, and Hispanic American male adolescents with LD to determine if cultural identity may influence transition decisions and self-determination strategies. Results indicated there were only minor differences between groups and students identified themselves and family members as playing a major role in transition planning. Results also indicated all participants had limited school-based opportunities to practice self-determination. Students also perceived self-determination in the home context was more accessible and productive.


Trainor, A. A. Lindstrom, L., Simon-Burroughs, M., Martin, J. E., & Sorrells, A. (2008). From marginalized to maximized opportunities for diverse youths with disabilities: A position paper of the division on career development and transition. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 31, 56-64. doi: 10.1177/088572880731777

This position paper provides an overview of issues facing CLD youth (i.e., African American, Latino, Asian American/Pacific Islander, and Native American Indian youths with disabilities of all races/ethnicities who are from low socioeconomic backgrounds). The authors argue for educators, researchers, and policy makers to attend to social, political, economic, educational, and cultural contexts in developing effective interventions and improving post-school outcomes.


Strategies for Transition Planning with CLD Youth

Cartledge, G. Y., Gardner, R., & Ford, D. Y. (2008). Creating self-directed culturally and linguistically diverse exceptional learners. Diverse learners with exceptionalities: Culturally responsive teaching in the inclusive classroom (pp. 254-279). Upper River Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

This chapter focuses on ways CLD exceptional learners could become more self-regulated and successful students. Teacher-directed, systematic instruction was suggested as a way for students to gain the skills needed to become more efficient learners. Goal setting and self-monitoring strategies were two of the major components emphasized to assist students with managing their academic behaviors and independently meeting desired goals.


Cartledge, G. Y., Gardner, R., & Ford, D. Y. (2008). Culturally responsive collaborations with families. Diverse learners with exceptionalities: Culturally responsive teaching in the inclusive classroom (pp. 130-157). Upper River Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

This book chapter focuses on strategies for increasing family involvement with the school and family advocacy. Strategies include (a) start any interaction with families with positive statements about the child, (b) use skilled translators for parents who are not fluent in English, (c) have frequent contact with families to explain the classroom demands in terms of academic and social behavior, (d) assign homework that reinforce skills previously taught to students instead of new material that families may be unfamiliar with, and (e) learn social cultural values of the family.


Gil-Kashiwabara, E., Hogansen, J. M., Greenen, S., Powers, K., & Powers, L. E. (2007). Improving transition outcomes for marginalized youth. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 30, 80-91. doi: 10.1177/08857288070300020501

This article describes research designed to identify the impact of marginalization on transition planning for Latinas and youth in foster care. Findings from each area of the ecological systems framework (i.e., the microsystem, where the individual spends most of their time; mesosystem, the connection between microsystems; exosystem, settings that influence the individuals microsystem;  and macrosystem, the wider society and culture that contains the other systems) are reported that support the need to consider the culture of marginalization and disenfranchisement when developing transition plans and providing services to youth with disabilities.  Also included in this article is a guide for transition service providers to provide individualized supports that respond to youths’ goals and dreams by focusing on the youth’s perspectives, assets, ambitions, and prior experiences.


Greene, G. (2011). Transition planning for culturally and linguistically diverse youth. Baltimore, Maryland: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

This book provides readers with important skills and best practices in culturally responsive, family-centered transition planning. Some topics covered include:

  • Understanding special challenges CLD families may face during the transition process including:
    •  cultural biases
    •  immigration issues
    • limited English proficiency
    • Developing culturally responsive transition IEPs
    • Preparing IDEA-required Summary of Functional Performance documents
    • Minimizing conflict and strengthening communication with CLD families
    • Encouraging students' active participation in transition planning
    • Collaborating closely with families throughout the whole process
    • Providing effective cultural competence training to school personnel
    • Implementing successful parent support programs
    • Conducting transition assessments to determine a student's individual needs
    • Discovering how teacher leadership can improve transition services
    • Making the most of transition services available in high school and beyond


Griffin, M. M. (2011). Promoting IEP participation: Effects of interventions, considerations for CLD students. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 34, 153-164. doi: 10.1177/0885728811410561

This article reviews 17 intervention studies on increasing student participation in IEP or transition planning meetings. Of the studies reviewed only three included CLD students as participants. Based on single-subject studies that included CLD students, interventions that promoted IEP participation (e.g., Self-Directed IEP, GO 4 IT…NOW! IEP Participation Strategy, and Self-Advocacy Strategy) were found to be effective. Even with the variety of interventions that successfully promoted student IEP participation there were common themes across interventions (a) direct instruction, (b) modeling, (c) verbal rehearsal, and (d) role-playing- components.


Hogansen, J. M., Powers, K. M., Geenen, S., Gil-Kashiwabara, E., & Powers, L. E. (2008). Transition goals and experiences of females with disabilities: Youth, parents, and professionals. Exceptional Children, 74, 215-234.

This article focuses on the transition experiences of young women with disabilities and their experiences related to the type of transition goals established for them based on self-perception, mentors, peers, family, teachers, and exposure to opportunities. When the authors examined what could be done to make transition to adult life successful, seven major themes that emerged (a) special education experiences (missed opportunities because of special education classes), (b) influence of self-perception (being different from others), (c) work experience (more job training opportunities), (d) social support (networking benefits from a social support system), (e) collaboration (between parents and professions), (f) self-determination (opportunity and capacity to determine and direct their own lives), and (g) relationships (professionals influence based on time and attention given to the student).


There were specific concerns for culturally and linguistically diverse young women which included (a) sterotypes/discrimination toward racial/ethnic background (having different or lesser goals), (b) different cultural definitions and ideas about disability between professionals and families, and (c) professionals not reflecting the population that they serve. Ethnic and racial biases about CLD youth may impede their self-esteem and access to opportunities and supports. It was suggested that professionals involved in the transition process should ask families and students about gender expectations, cultural traditions, and family background when developing and implementing transition plans.


Kalyanpur, M., & Harry, B. (1999). Culture in special education: Building reciprocal family-professional relationships. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

Four steps are given to promote cultural reciprocity with a CLD youth and family:

  • Step 1: The professional identifies his or her cultural values underlying interpretations of the youth's situation. For example, the professional may realize values like independence and self-reliance lead to recommending a young adult with developmental disabilities move from the family home to supported living and, eventually, independent living.
  • Step 2: The professional finds out the extent to which his or her values and assumptions are recognized and accepted by the youth and family. If the youth and family do not view independent living as a milestone to adulthood, then this may not be an appropriate goal.
  • Step 3: The professional acknowledges any cultural differences identified and explains to the youth and family how and why mainstream American society promotes different values. How the value of independent living has benefited other youth and families might be described, helping the youth and family to understand cultural basis for professional recommendations.
  • Step 4: Through discussion and collaboration, the professional, youth, and family collaboratively determine the most effective way of adapting professional interpretations and recommendations to the family value system.


Leake, D., & Black, R. (2005). Cultural and linguistic diversity: Implications for transition personnel. Essential tools: Improving secondary education and transition for youth with disabilities. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration.

The tool discusses challenges commonly faced by CLD youth with disabilities in transition, alternative views of people as independent or interdependent, and contrasts between individualistic and collectivistic values. The Essential Tool is divided into four parts (a) Essential Tool overview, (b) CLD youth with disabilities in transition, (c) continuum of “individualistic” and “collectivistic” values, and (d) culturally sensitive individualization of services and supports. Each section has individual “tools” that can be photocopied and distributed as needed.


Leake, D. W., Burgstahler, S., & Izzo, M. V. (2011). Promoting transition success for minority students with disabilities: The value of mentoring. Creative Education, 2, 121-129.

Telephone interview surveys, focus groups, and case studies, with a focus on CLD youth with disabilities, were reviewed in this article to help provide insight into factors that influence transition process. The importance of mentoring emerged as a consistent theme. Most participants cited informal mentors as role models and key motivators for gaining the social, academic, and career supports needed for success.


Lichtenstein, D., Lindstrom, L., & Povenmiere-Kirk, T. Promoting multicultural competence: Diversity training for transition professionals. Journal for Vocational Special Needs Education, 30(3), 3-15.

This article examines the effects and efficacy of a one-time-only diversity training for education and rehabilitation professionals who provide transition services for youth with disabilities. Results indicated that initially educators and rehabilitation professionals self-reported high levels of multicultural competence. After the training there were only small gains in increasing multicultural competence based on post-test scores, which led to the belief that training may assist in raising awareness of multicultural competence.


Povenmire-Kirk, T. C., Lindstrom, L., & Bullis, M. (2010). De escuela a la vida adulta/From school to adult life: Transition needs for Latino youth with disabilities and their families. Career Development and Exceptional Individuals, 33, 41-51.

This study describes the needs of youth with disabilities from Latino backgrounds who were transitioning from school to adulthood. It was found that existing service models did not always align with family or cultural values creating barriers for Latino families. First, language issues existed because of insufficient translation services available to families, staff, and students. Additionally, culturally appropriate goals and practices were also identified as barriers Latino families face. Lastly, lack of family participation in transition planning was another barrier for Latino youth. To address these barriers authors recommended the following:

  • Translation and interpretation services
  • More information for families and schools on steps to become citizens
  • Cultural competence training
  • Work experiences with businesses of interest to Latino youth


Trainor, A. A. (2007). Person-centered planning in two culturally distinct communities: Responding to divergent needs and preferences. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 30, 92-103.

The purpose of this qualitative study was to provide an example of a process for collecting data to investigate efficacy of person-centered planning (PCP) as a culturally responsive method of transition planning. Focus group interviews were conducted with two facilitators of PCP. From these interviews the author identified five themes including:

  • Responding to needed changes
  • Engaging in authentic participation
  • Facilitating with flexibility
  • Building relationships
  • Shifting foci of futures planning. Facilitators of PCP, including teachers, should learn as much as possible about the values and beliefs of the families they work with.

Authors describe person-centered planning as one of the foundational steps in culturally responsive pedagogy.


Trainor, A. A. (2005). To what extent are transition components of individualized education programs for diverse students with learning disabilities culturally responsive? Multiple Voices for Ethnically Diverse Exceptional Learners, 8,111-127.

This article reviews transition components of a racially and ethnically diverse group of males with learning disabilities. The author examined the extent to which their transition plans were compliant with mandates in IDEA 1997, statement of needed transition services contain evidence of explicit and comprehensive goals, individualization, and student self-determination, and what patterns of compliance and/or implementation of individualization and self-determination, based on planning efforts documented on transition components and the race/ethnicity of participants, emerged. The author concluded for teachers to be responsive to individualized needs, preferences, and strengths of diverse students, they must be able to do the following:

  • Recognize how personal beliefs and values influence decision making
  • Identify ways in which beliefs and values of diverse families may differ from school staff’s perspective
  • Communicate with families regarding differences and similarities using competent cross-cultural communication skills
  • Create opportunities for families to make informed choices and, ultimately, respect preferences of the family


Trainor, A. A. (2008). Using cultural and social capital to improve postsecondary outcomes and expand transition models for youth with disabilities. The Journal of Special Education, 42, 148-162.

The author considers disparate outcomes of populations of adolescents and explains the terms cultural and social capital. Four practices were recommended because they directly or indirectly engage issues of capital or resources that contribute to the “purchase” of desirable outcomes including (a) student self-determination, (b) family participation in transition planning, (c) linkages to adult service agencies, and (d) access to both general academic curriculum and vocational education.



Resource Table

For information about:


Challenges and solutions that can impact CLD youth with disabilities.

NCSET Essential Tools, p.16


Leake, D., & Black, R. (2005). Cultural and linguistic diversity: Implications for transition personnel. Essential tools: Improving secondary education and transition for youth with disabilities. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration.


Effectively using the process of cultural reciprocity to enhance relationships with all youth and families, regardless of their cultural backgrounds.

NCSET Essential Tools, p.26

Leake, D., & Black, R. (2005). Cultural and linguistic diversity: Implications for transition personnel. Essential tools: Improving secondary education and transition for youth with disabilities. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration.


Standard questions used to help transition personnel plan for MAPS meetings.

Tool 2. NCSET Essential Tools, p.34


Leake, D., & Black, R. (2005). Cultural and linguistic diversity: Implications for transition personnel. Essential tools: Improving secondary education and transition for youth with disabilities. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration.


Completed MAPS form!

Tool 3. NCSET Essential Tools, p. 36


Leake, D., & Black, R. (2005). Cultural and linguistic diversity: Implications for transition personnel. Essential tools: Improving secondary education and transition for youth with disabilities. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration.


Transition issues related to a specific disability

Kochhar-Bryant, C. A. (2009). Student populations and their transition needs. In C. A. Kochhar-Bryant, & G. A. Greene (Eds.), Pathways to Successful Transition for Youth with Disabilities: A Developmental Process (pp. 28-65). Columbus, Ohio: Pearson.


Practical forms, tools, and checklists!

(1) CLD Transition Knowledge and Skill Evaluation instrument; (2) Summary of Academic and Functional Performance (SOP) Model template; (3) Checklist for writing culturally responsive IEPs and SOPs; (4) Culturally responsive questions to ask CLD families; (5) Sample agenda for cultural competence seminar; (6)Sample parent support program agenda; (7) and a Family survey


Greene, G. (2011). Transition planning for culturally and linguistically diverse youth. Baltimore, Maryland: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.





This document was produced under U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs Grant No.  H326J110001.  Marlene Simon-Burroughs served as the project officer.  The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent the positions or polices of the Department of Education.  No official endorsement by the U.S. Department of Education of any product, commodity, service or enterprise mentioned in this publication is intended or should be inferred.  This product is public domain.  Authorization to reproduce it in whole or in part is granted.  While permission to reprint this publication is not necessary, the citation should be: National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center (July, 2012) Cultural Diversity and Secondary Transition Annotated Bibliography. Charlotte, NC, NSTTAC.

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