What is the evidence base? A strong level of evidence based on a high quality meta-analysis of 14 intervention studies including 3 within-subjects designs, 8 single subject designs, 2 group designs, and 1 qualitative study.
With whom was it implemented?
What is the practice? Teaching using peer assistance includes strategies such as:
Where is the best place to find out how to do this practice:
For Peer Assistance Research to Lesson Plan Starters, see:
Where has it been implemented?
References used to establish this evidence base:
Winokur, M. A., Cobb, R. B., & Dugan, J. J. (2007). Effects of academic peer assistance interventions on academic outcomes for youth with disabilities: A systematic review. Ft. Collins, CO: Colorado State University, School of Education.
Bahr, C. M., & Rieth, H. J. (1991). Effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic goals on student achievement using computer-based drill-and-practice. Journal of Special Education Technology, 11(1), 33-48.
Bell, K., & Young, R. K. (1990). Facilitating mainstreaming of students with behavioral disorders using classwide peer tutoring. School Psychology Review, 19, 564-573.
Hawkins, J. (1988). Antecedent pausing as a direct instruction tactic for adolescents with severe behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 13, 263-272.
Hawkins, J., & Brady, M. P. (1994). The effects of independent and peer guided practice during instructional pauses on the academic performance of students with mild handicaps. Education & Treatment of Children, 17, 1-28.
Hock, M. F., Pulvers, K. A., Deshler, D. D., & Schumaker, J. B. (2001). The effects of an after-school tutoring program on the academic performance of at-risk students and students with LD. Remedial and Special Education, 22, 172-186.
Hughes, C., Carter, E. W., Hughes, T., Bradford, E., & Copeland, S. R. (2002). Effects of instructional versus non-instructional roles on the social interactions of high school students. Education & Training in Mental Retardation, 37, 146-162.
Martella, R., Marchand-Martella, N. E., Young, K. R., & MacFarlane, C. A. (1995). Determining the collateral effects of peer tutor training on a student with severe disabilities. Behavior Modification, 19, 170-191.
McDonnell, J., Mathot-Buckner, C., Thorson, N., & Fister, S. (2001). Supporting the inclusion of students with moderate and severe disabilities in junior high school general education classes: The effects of classwide peer tutoring, multi-element curriculum, and accommodations. Education & Treatment of Children, 24, 141-160.
Miller, K. J. (1995). Cooperative conversations. The effect of cooperative learning on conversational interaction. American Annals of the Deaf, 140, 28-37.
O'Melia, M., & Rosenberg, M. (1994). Effects of cooperative homework teams on the acquisition of mathematics skills by secondary students with mild disabilities. Exceptional Children, 60, 538-548.
Schloss, P. J., Kobza, S. A., & Alper, S. (1997). The use of peer tutoring for the acquisition of functional math skills among students with moderate retardation. Education & Treatment of Children, 20, 189-208.
Staub, D., Spaulding, M., Peck, C. A., Gallucci, C., & Schwartz, I. S. (1996). Using nondisabled peers to support the inclusion of students with disabilities at the junior high school level. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 21, 194-205.
Wolford, P. L., Heward, W. L., & Alber, S. R. (2001). Teaching middle school students with learning disabilities to recruit peer assistance during cooperative learning group activities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16, 161-173.
Wong, B. Y. L., Butler, D. L., Ficzere, S. A., & Kuperis, S. (1997). Teaching adolescents with learning disabilities and low achievers to plan, write, and revise compare-and-contrast essays. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 12, 2-15.